This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary Researcher

Becka A. Alper, Research Associate

Research Team

Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research
Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director of Research
Besheer Mohamed, Senior Researcher
Elizabeth Podrebarac Sciupac, Senior Researcher
Kiana Cox, Research Associate
Claire Gecewicz, Research Associate                       

Editorial and Graphic Design

Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager
Aleksandra Sandstrom, Copy Editor
Bill Webster, Senior Information Graphics Designer         

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Anna Schiller, Communications Manager
Haley Nolan, Communications Associate

Others at Pew Research Center also gave valuable feedback on this report, including Claudia Deane, vice president of research; Nick Bertoni, panel manager; Andrew Mercer, senior research methodologist; and Arnold Lau, research analyst.

Pew Research Center also received valuable advice on this report from current and former staff at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, including Victoria Barnett and Rebecca Carter-Chand. Rabbi Andrew Baker at the American Jewish Committee also contributed.

Stephen Prothero, professor of religion at Boston University and author of “Religious Literacy,” provided expertise on the questionnaire.

While the analysis for this report was guided by our consultations with the advisers, Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.