This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary Researchers

Patrick van Kessel, Senior Data Scientist
Adam Hughes, Computational Social Scientist
Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director of Research
Becka A. Alper, Research Associate

Research Team

Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research
Besheer Mohamed, Senior Researcher
Kiana Cox, Research Associate
Onyi Lam, Computational Social Scientist
Elizabeth Podrebarac Sciupac, Research Associate
Stefan Wojcik, Computational Social Scientist
Claire Gecewicz, Research Analyst
Dennis R. Quinn, Data Science Analyst
Emma Remy, Data Science Assistant

Research Methods

Courtney Kennedy, Director of Survey Research
Nick Bertoni, Panel Manager
Andrew Mercer, Senior Research Methodologist
Nicholas Hatley, Research Analyst
Arnold Lau, Research Analyst

Editorial and Graphic Design

Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager
Aleksandra Sandstrom, Copy Editor
Bill Webster, Information Graphics Designer          

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Anna Schiller, Communications Manager
Rachel Weisel, Communications Manager
Hannah Klein, Communications Associate

Claudia Deane, vice president of research at Pew Research Center, and Rich Morin, senior editor, also provided valuable guidance for this report.