This report was made possible by The Pew Charitable Trusts, which received support from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder.’s data experts provided valuable input during the course of the project, from assistance in understanding the structure of the anonymized data to consultation on methodological decisions.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals:

Primary researchers

Amy Mitchell, Director, Journalism Research
Galen Stocking, Research Associate
Katerina Eva Matsa, Research Associate

Research team

Michael Barthel, Research Associate
Kristine Lu, Research Assistant
Elisa Shearer, Research Analyst
Patrick vanKessel, Data Science Associate, Data Labs
Andrew Small, News Content Coder
Zachary Lingo, News Content Coder

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
Shannon Greenwood, Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Shannon Greenwood, Assistant Digital Producer
Rachel Weisel, Communications Associate