This report was made possible by The Pew Charitable Trusts. Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals:

Primary researchers

Michael Barthel, Research Associate
Galen Stocking, Research Associate
Jesse Holcomb, Associate Director, Journalism Research
Amy Mitchell, Director, Journalism Research

Research team

Elisa Shearer, Research Analyst
Jeffrey Gottfried, Research Associate
Kristine Lu, Research Assistant
Mildred Miranda-Cruz, News Content Coders 
Andrew Small, News Content Coders 
Michaela Hoffman, News Content Coders 

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
Shannon Greenwood, Copy Editor

Machine learning advisor

Solomon Messing, Director, Data Labs

Communications and web publishing

Shannon Greenwood, Assistant Digital Producer
Rachel Weisel, Communications Associate

In addition, the report benefited from feedback provided by the following individuals: Alex Leavitt (PhD candidate, Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism, University of Southern California) and J. Nathan Matias (PhD candidate, Center for Civic Media in the MIT Media Lab and fellow at Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society). While the analysis was guided by our consultations with the advisers, the Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.