This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Brooke Auxier, Research Associate
Monica Anderson, Associate Director of Research
Andrew Perrin, Research Analyst     
Erica Turner, Former Research Intern         

Research team

Lee Rainie, Director of Research
Emily Vogels, Research Associate

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
David Kent, Senior Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Haley Nolan, Communications Associate
Kelsey Beveridge, Communications Associate
Reem Nadeem, Associate Digital Producer

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of Pew Research Center’s methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Nick Bertoni, Joshua Ferno, Nick Hatley and Arnold Lau, as well as from feedback by the following Pew Research Center staff: Ruth Igielnik, Juliana Horowitz, and Besheer Mohamed. The Center received invaluable advice in developing the questionnaire from Amanda Lenhart, Program Director, Health & Data, Data & Society, Craig Watkins, Professor at the University of Texas at Austin, Priya Kumar, Doctoral Candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park and Kole Binger, Associate Research Specialist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.