This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Emily A. Vogels, Research Associate
Andrew Perrin, Research Analyst     
Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research   
Monica Anderson, Associate Director                                 

Research team

Brooke Auxier, Research Associate  
Erica Turner, Research Intern
Courtney Johnson, Research Associate

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
Aleksandra Sandstrom, Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Haley Nolan, Communications Associate
Reem Nadeem, Associate Digital Producer

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of Pew Research Center’s methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Nick Bertoni, Joshua Ferno, Nick Hatley and Arnold Lau, as well as feedback from the following Pew Research Center staff: Aaron Smith, Jocelyn Kiley, Hannah Hartig, Ted Van Green and Juliana Horowitz.