This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Stefan Wojcik, Computational Social Scientist
Solomon Messing, Director, Data Labs
Aaron Smith, Associate Director, Research
Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research
Paul Hitlin, Senior Researcher

Research team

Skye Toor, Data Science Assistant
Patrick van Kessel, Senior Data Scientist
Adam Hughes, Computational Social Scientist

Editorial and graphic design

Peter Bell, Design Director
Travis Mitchell, Copy Editor
David Kent, Copy Editor
Kim Arias, Video and Motion Graphics Producer

Communications and web publishing

Rachel Weisel, Communications Manager
Tom Caiazza, Communications Manager
Hannah Klein, Communications Associate
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Shannon Greenwood, Associate Digital Producer

In addition, the report benefited from feedback provided by Kenny Joseph at Northeastern University, as well as the following Pew Research Center researchers: Amy Mitchell, Claudia Deane, Galen Stocking and Mike Barthel. Special thanks to Spencer Ward and William Tedrick for research assistance.