This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Kim Parker, Director, Social Trends Research
Juliana Horowitz, Associate Director, Research
Rachel Minkin, Research Associate
Jesse Bennett, Research Assistant
Deja Thomas, Research Assistant
Tanya Arditi, Communications Manager
Gar Meng Leong, Communications Associate
Michael Keegan, Senior Information Graphics Designer
Travis Mitchell, Copy Editor and Digital Producer
Sara Atske, Associate Digital Producer
Julia O’Hanlon, Communications Associate

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of the Pew Research Center methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Ashley Amaya, Nick Bertoni, Dorene Asare-Marfo, Nick Hatley and Arnold Lau.