Pew Research Center received invaluable advice in developing the questionnaire from Amanda Lenhart, Program Director, Health and Data, Data & Society, and Michael J. Rosenfeld, Professor of Sociology, Stanford University.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Kim Parker, Director, Social Trends Research
Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research
Juliana Horowitz, Associate Director, Research
Monica Anderson, Associate Director, Research
Anna Brown, Research Associate
Deja Thomas, Research Assistant
Jesse Bennett, Research Assistant
Emily A. Vogels, Research Associate
Erica Turner, Former Research Intern
Aaron Smith, Director, Data Labs
Andrew Perrin, Research Analyst
Tanya Arditi, Communications Manager
Gar Meng Leong, Communications Associate
Colin Lahiff, Former Communications Associate
Travis Mitchell, Copy Editor and Digital Producer
Michael Keegan, Senior Information Graphics Designer

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of Pew Research Center’s methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Nick Bertoni, Joshua Ferno, Dorene Asare-Marfo, Nick Hatley and Arnold Lau, as well as from feedback by the following Pew Research Center staff: Jeffrey Gottfried, Baxter Oliphant, Dennis Quinn and Rachel Weisel.