This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals:

Research team

Kim Parker, Director, Social Trends Research
Juliana Horowitz, Associate Director, Research
Ruth Igielnik, Senior Researcher
Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director, Research
Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager
Becka A. Alper, Research Associate
Jesse Bennett, Research Assistant
Deja Thomas, Research Assistant

Questionnaire team

Claudia Deane, Vice President, Research
Cary Funk, Director, Science and Society Research
Scott Keeter, Senior Survey Advisor
Jocelyn Kiley, Associate Director, Research
J. Baxter Oliphant, Senior Researcher

Communications and editorial

Tanya Arditi, Communications Manager
Anna Schiller, Communications Manager
David Kent, Copy Editor

Graphic design and web publishing

Michael Keegan, Senior Information Graphics Designer
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer


Nick Bertoni, Panel Manager
Joshua Ferno, Assistant Panel Manager
Arnold Lau, Research Analyst

Others at Pew Research Center also gave valuable feedback and assistance on this project, including Director of Political Research Carroll Doherty, Associate Director of Research Adam Hughes, Research Associates Andrew Daniller, Bradley Jones, Hannah Hartig and Claire Gecewicz, and Research Assistants Amina Dunn, Hannah Gilberstadt and Ted Van Green.