Pew Research Center received invaluable advice in developing the questionnaire from Richard Reeves, Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution and Karlyn Bowman, Senior Fellow, American Enterprise Institute.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Kim Parker, Director, Social Trends Research
Juliana Horowitz, Associate Director, Research
Ruth Igielnik, Senior Researcher
Rick Fry, Senior Economist
Rakesh Kochhar, Senior Researcher
Anna Brown, Research Associate
Nikki Graff, Former Research Associate
Deja Thomas, Research Assistant
Jesse Bennett, Research Assistant
Tanya Arditi, Communications Manager
Michael Keegan, Information Graphics Designer
Travis Mitchell, Copy Editor, Digital Producer

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of Carroll Doherty and Jocelyn Kiley as well as the Pew Research Center methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Nick Bertoni, Joshua Ferno, Nick Hatley and Arnold Lau.