Pew Research Center received invaluable advice in developing the questionnaire from Philip N. Cohen, Professor of Sociology at the University of Maryland; and Wendy D. Manning, Dr. Howard E. Aldrich and Penny Daum Aldrich Distinguished Professor of Sociology at Bowling Green State University.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Kim Parker, Director, Social Trends Research
Juliana Horowitz, Associate Director, Research
Nikki Graf, Research Associate
Gretchen Livingston, Senior Researcher
Anna Brown, Research Associate
Deja Thomas, Research Assistant
Jesse Bennett, Research Assistant
Tanya Arditi, Communications Manager
Michael Keegan, Information Graphics Designer
David Kent, Copy Editor
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer

 In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of the Pew Research Center methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Nick Bertoni, Nick Hatley and Arnold Lau.