This report is made possible by The Pew Charitable Trusts. This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports on science and STEM online at: and reports on gender and the workplace at

Primary research team

Cary Funk, Director, Science and Society Research
Kim Parker, Director, Social Trends Research
Brian Kennedy, Research Associate
Meg Hefferon, Research Assistant
Nikki Graf, Research Associate
Rick Fry, Senior Economist
Monica Anderson, Research Associate
Mark Strauss, Writer/Editor

Collaborating research team

Claudia Deane, Vice President, Research
Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research
Juliana Menasce Horowitz, Associate Director, Research
Courtney Kennedy, Director, Survey Research
Andrew Mercer, Survey Research Methodologist

Editorial and graphic design

Mark Strauss, Writer/Editor
Shannon Greenwood, Copy Editor
Meg Hefferon, Research Assistant
Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer

Communications and web publishing

Tom Caiazza, Communications Manager
Molly Rohal, Communications Manager
Shannon Greenwood, Associate Digital Producer

Outside advisers

We are grateful for advice from a number of outside experts. We received valuable guidance from Maria Charles, professor of sociology and director of the Broom Center for Demography at the University of California, Santa Barbara; Matthew Kloser, director of the Notre Dame Center for STEM education at the University of Notre Dame; Cheryl Leggon, associate professor in the school of public policy at the Georgia Institute of Technology; and Carol O’Donnell, director of the Smithsonian Science Education Center.

We also benefited from conversations about the project design and survey questionnaire with a group of staff at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) including Shirley Malcom, director of education and human resources; Iris Wagstaff, STEM program director; Quincy Brown, program director STEM education research; Celeste Rohlfing, chief operating officer; and Tiffany Lohwater, director of the office of public programs.

While the design and analysis of the project was guided by our consultations with these advisers, Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the design, interpretation and reporting of the data.