This report was produced by Pew Research Center as part of the Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures project, which analyzes religious change and its impact on societies around the world. Funding for the Global Religious Futures project comes from The Pew Charitable Trusts and the John Templeton Foundation.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary Researcher

Stephanie Kramer, Senior Researcher

Research Team                    

Yunping Tong, Research Associate
Conrad Hackett, Associate Director of Research and Senior Demographer
Anne Fengyan Shi, Senior Researcher
Jacob Ausubel, Research Assistant
Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research     

Editorial and Graphic Design

Dalia Fahmy, Senior Writer/Editor
Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager
David Kent, Senior Copy Editor
Rebecca Leppert, Editorial Assistant
Bill Webster, Senior Information Graphics Designer

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Anna Schiller, Senior Communications Manager
Kelsey Beveridge, Communications Associate

Others at Pew Research Center who provided guidance include Neha Sahgal, Associate Director of Research, and Jonathan Evans, Research Associate. In addition, former Research Associate Joey Marshall and former intern Omkar Joshi made important contributions to this report.

The Center also received valuable advice on this report from several eminent scholars, including Monica Das Gupta, Research Professor of Sociology at the University of Maryland and the Maryland Population Research Center; Sriya Iyer, University Reader in Economics and Fellow of Saint Catharine’s College at the University of Cambridge; and Devesh Kapur, Starr Foundation Professor of South Asian studies at Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies.

While the analysis for this report was guided by our consultations with these advisers, Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.