This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Research Team

Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director of Research
Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research
Becka A. Alper, Senior Researcher
Besheer Mohamed, Senior Researcher
Elizabeth Podrebarac Sciupac, Senior Researcher
Kiana Cox, Research Associate
Claire Gecewicz, Research Associate
Justin Nortey, Research Assistant    

Methods Team

Courtney Kennedy, Director of Survey Research
Nick Bertoni, Panel Manager
Andrew Mercer, Senior Research Methodologist
Nick Hatley, Research Analyst

Editorial and Graphic Design

Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager
Aleksandra Sandstrom, Senior Copy Editor
Bill Webster, Senior Information Graphics Designer

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Anna Schiller, Communications Manager
Kelsey Beveridge, Communications Associate

John C. Green, director emeritus of the Ray C. Bliss Institute of Applied Politics at the University of Akron; Frank Newport, Gallup senior scientist; and Philip Schwadel, professor of sociology at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, provided valuable feedback on this report.