This report was produced by Pew Research Center as part of the Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures project, which analyzes religious change and its impact on societies around the world. Funding for the Global Religious Futures project comes from The Pew Charitable Trusts and the John Templeton Foundation.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary Researcher

Dennis Quinn, Computational Social Scientist

Research Team

Brian Broderick, Data Science Engineer
Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director of Research
Emma Remy, Data Science Assistant
Besheer Mohammed, Senior Researcher
Patrick van Kessel, Senior Data Scientist
Aaron Smith, Director of Data Labs
Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research
Claudia Deane, Vice President for Research
Andrew Mercer, Senior Research Methodologist
Adam Hughes, Associate Director of Research
Regina Widjaya, Computational Social Scientist
Sono Shah, Computational Social Scientist
Claire Gecewicz, Research Associate
Rachel Sweeney, Assistant DevOps Engineer
Madhu Kumar, Research Assistant
Erica Turner, Internet and Science Intern
Andrew Perrin, Research Analyst

Editorial and Graphic Design

Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager
Aleksandra Sandstrom, Copy Editor
Peter Bell, Design Director
Bill Webster, Information Graphics Designer           

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Anna Schiller, Communications Manager
Rachel Weisel, Senior Communications Manager
Andrew Grant, Communications Associate

Others at Pew Research Center also gave valuable feedback on this report, including Kiana Cox, Ruth Igielnik, Bradley Jones, Alycia Kantor, Hannah Klein, Rebecca Schmitt, Elizabeth Podrebarac Sciupac and Galen Stocking. Former Pew Research Center Data Labs Director Solomon Messing also contributed to this report. Outside guidance was provided by Mark Chaves, Professor of Sociology, Duke University.