This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary Researchers

Becka A. Alper, Research Associate
Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director of Research

Research Team

Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research
Besheer Mohamed, Senior Researcher
Philip Schwadel, Senior Researcher
Elizabeth Podrebarac Sciupac, Senior Researcher
Kiana Cox, Research Associate
Claire Gecewicz, Research Associate                       

Editorial and Graphic Design

Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager
Aleksandra Sandstrom, Copy Editor
Bill Webster, Information Graphics Designer         

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Sara Atske, Associate Digital Producer
Anna Schiller, Communications Manager
Haley Nolan, Communications Associate

Others at Pew Research Center also gave valuable feedback on this report, including Claudia Deane, vice president of research; Scott Keeter, senior survey adviser; Cary Funk, director of science and society research; Brian Kennedy, senior researcher; Nick Bertoni, panel manager; Andrew Mercer, senior research methodologist; and Arnold Lau, research analyst.

Stephen Prothero, professor of religion at Boston University and author of “Religious Literacy,” provided expertise on all phases of this project.