This report was produced by Pew Research Center as part of the Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures project, which analyzes religious change and its impact on societies around the world. Funding for the Global Religious Futures project comes from The Pew Charitable Trusts and the John Templeton Foundation.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Research Team

Conrad Hackett, Associate Director of Research and Senior Demographer
Joey Marshall, Research Associate
Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research
Anne Fengyan Shi, Senior Researcher
Philip Schwadel, Senior Researcher
Stephanie Kramer, Research Associate
Kabir Sandrolini, Intern
Jose Fuentes, Intern

Editorial and Graphic Design

Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager
Dalia Fahmy, Senior Writer/Editor
Aleksandra Sandstrom, Copy Editor
Bill Webster, Information Graphics Designer

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Anna Schiller, Communications Manager
Haley Nolan, Communications Associate

Others at Pew Research Center who provided research guidance include James Bell, Gregory A. Smith, Neha Sahgal, Patrick Moynihan, Nick Bertoni and Jonathan Evans.

Christopher Ellison, Dean’s Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the University of Texas at San Antonio, provided advice at the beginning of this project. Landon Schnabel, sociology doctoral candidate at Indiana University Bloomington, did initial analysis and writing for this report. He also provided feedback on a draft near the end of the project. Pew Research Center received additional feedback on the report from: Neal Krause, Marshall H. Becker Collegiate Professor of Public Health at the University of Michigan; Ellen L. Idler, Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Sociology at Emory University; and Terrence D. Hill, associate professor of sociology at the University of Arizona.

While the analysis for this report was guided by our consultations with the advisers, Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.