This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Research Team

Becka A. Alper, Research Associate
Rich Morin, Senior Editor
Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director of Research
Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research
Besheer Mohamed, Senior Researcher
Philip Schwadel, Senior Researcher
Kiana Cox, Research Associate
Katayoun Kishi, Research Associate
Elizabeth Podrebarac Sciupac, Research Associate
Claire Gecewicz, Research Analyst

Research Methods

Courtney Kennedy, Director of Survey Research
Nick Bertoni, Panel Manager
Andrew Mercer, Senior Research Methodologist
Arnold Lau, Research Analyst         

Editorial and Graphic Design

Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager
Aleksandra Sandstrom, Copy Editor
Bill Webster, Information Graphics Designer       

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Chris Baronavski, Senior Developer
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Anna Schiller, Communications Manager                         

Others at Pew Research Center who provided research guidance include Claudia Deane, vice president of research; Jocelyn Kiley, associate director of research; and Brad Jones, research associate.

Doug Steinley, professor of psychology at the University of Missouri; and Brian Steensland, professor of sociology at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, also provided valuable advice.