This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Research Team

Claire Gecewicz, Research Analyst
Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director of Research
Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research
Becka A. Alper, Research Associate
Elizabeth Podrebarac Sciupac, Research Associate
Besheer Mohamed, Senior Researcher      

Editorial and Graphic Design

Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager
Rich Morin, Senior Editor
Aleksandra Sandstrom, Copy Editor
Bill Webster, Information Graphics Designer       

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Anna Schiller, Communications Manager                         

Nick Bertoni, panel manager for the American Trends Panel; Claudia Deane, vice president of research; and Kim Parker, director of social trends research, also gave valuable feedback on this study.