This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary Researchers

Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director of Research
Jessica Hamar Martínez, Senior Researcher
Becka A. Alper, Research Associate

 Research Team

Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research
Elizabeth Podrebarac Sciupac, Research Associate
Claire Gecewicz, Research Analyst

Methodology Team               

Courtney Kennedy, Director, Survey Research
Andrew Mercer, Senior Methodologist
Nick Bertoni, Panel Manager
Nicholas Hatley, Research Analyst
Arnold Lau, Research Analyst
Shaohua Dong, Research Intern

Editorial and Graphic Design

Michael Lipka, Senior Editor
Jeff Diamant, Senior Writer/Editor
David Masci, Senior Writer/Editor
Aleksandra Sandstrom, Copy Editor
Diana Yoo, Associate Director, Design
Bill Webster, Information Graphics Designer

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Anna Schiller, Communications Manager
Jessica Pumphrey, Communications Associate

Administrative Staff

Clara Huergo, Administrative Coordinator
Audrey Powers, Administrative Coordinator

Others at Pew Research Center who gave valuable feedback on this report include Michael Dimock, president, and Claudia Deane, vice president of research.

Pew Research Center received valuable advice on all phases of this project from expert advisers: Luis Lugo, director of community initiatives at the Doug & Maria DeVos Foundation and former director of religion research at Pew Research Center; the Rev. Thomas Reese, columnist for National Catholic Reporter; the Rev. Dr. Kendall Harmon, canon theologian for the Episcopal Diocese of South Carolina; the Rev. Dr. Steffen Lösel, associate professor of systematic theology at Emory University’s Candler School of Theology; Thomas Albert Howard, professor of history and the humanities at Valparaiso University; Carlos M.N. Eire, professor of history and religious studies at Yale University; the Rev. John William Crossin, director of spiritual formation at Saint Luke Institute; Christopher J. Malloy, associate professor of theology at the University of Dallas; the Rev. Dr. Paul Hinlicky, professor of Lutheran studies at Roanoke College.

While the analysis for this report was guided by our consultation with the advisers, Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.