This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary Researchers

Besheer Mohamed, Senior Researcher
Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director of Research

Research Team

Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research
Jessica Hamar Martínez, Senior Researcher
Elizabeth Podrebarac Sciupac, Research Associate
Becka A. Alper, Research Associate
Claire Gecewicz, Research Analyst 
Katayoun Kishi, Research Associate
Conrad Hackett, Associate Director, Research
Neha Sahgal, Associate Director, Research
Anne Fengyan Shi, Senior Researcher
Jeffrey Passel, Senior Demographer
Phillip Connor, Senior Researcher
Scott Gardner, Senior Researcher
Stephanie Kramer, Research Associate
Jonathan Evans, Research Analyst
Samirah Majumdar, Research Analyst
Ariana Monique Salazar, Research Analyst
Kelsey Jo Starr, Research Assistant
Juan Carlos Esparza Ochoa, Data Manager

Methodology Team               

Courtney Kennedy, Director, Survey Research
Andrew Mercer, Senior Methodologist
Nick Bertoni, Panel Manager
Nicholas Hatley, Research Analyst

Editorial and Graphic Design

Michael Lipka, Senior Editor
Jeff Diamant, Senior Writer/Editor
David Masci, Senior Writer/Editor
Geneive Abdo, Senior Writer/Editor
Aleksandra Sandstrom, Copy Editor    
Diana Yoo, Associate Director, Design
Bill Webster, Information Graphics Designer

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Shannon Greenwood, Associate Digital Producer
Anna Schiller, Communications Manager 

Others at Pew Research Center who gave valuable feedback on this report include Michael Dimock, president; James Bell, vice president of global strategy; Claudia Deane, vice president of research; Carroll Doherty, director of political research; and Jocelyn Kiley, associate director of research.

Pew Research Center received valuable advice on all phases of this project from a panel of expert advisers: Ihsan Bagby, associate professor in the department of Islamic studies at the University of Kentucky; Edward E. Curtis IV, Millennium Chair of the Liberal Arts and professor of Religious Studies at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis; Zareena Grewal, associate professor of American studies and religious studies at Yale University; Amaney A. Jamal, Edwards S. Sanford Professor of Politics at Princeton University and director of the Mamdouha S. Bobst Center for Peace and Justice; Imam Mohamed Magid, executive imam of All Dulles Area Muslim Society (ADAMS) Center; Dalia Mogahed, director of research at the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding in Washington, D.C.; and Farid Senzai, associate professor in the department of political science at Santa Clara University. In addition, Clara Huergo, Pew Research Center administrative coordinator, helped organize logistics for the advisory panel.

While the analysis for this report was guided by our consultation with the advisers, Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.