In preparing this report, the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life sought the counsel and advice of scholars with expertise in Muslim groups and networks in Western Europe. Peter Mandaville, director of the Center for Global Studies and Professor of Government and Islamic Studies at George Mason University in Fairfax, Va., and a visiting fellow with the Pew Forum in 2009-10, served as the primary researcher for the project. Under Dr. Mandaville’s direction, the scholars prepared white papers and other materials summarizing their research findings. In August 2009, the Pew Forum convened a workshop in Washington, D.C., where the scholars presented their research and addressed questions and comments from other experts in attendance. Dr. Mandaville and the Pew Forum then used the prepared materials, as well as the best available scholarship and reporting on the topic, to draft the profiles of the groups that appear in this report.  We would like to extend special thanks to the scholars whose research formed the basis of the report:

Bekim Agai, Bonn University, Germany; Amel Boubekeur, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales and Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris; John Bowen, Washington University in St. Louis, Mo.; Alexandre Caeiro, Leiden University, The Netherlands; Dilwar Hussain, Policy Research Centre, Islamic Foundation, United Kingdom; Mara Leichtman, Michigan State University; Brigitte Maréchal, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium; Jørgen Nielsen, Copenhagen University, Denmark; Dietrich Reetz, Zentrum Moderner Orient, Germany; and Reinhard Schulze, University of Berne, Switzerland.

We also want to thank Hillel Fradkin of the Hudson Institute’s Center for Islam, Democracy and the Future of the Muslim World, Amaney Jamal of Princeton University, Jonathan Laurence of Boston College and the Brookings Institution, and Timothy Samuel Shah of the Institute on Culture, Religion and World Affairs at Boston University for their contributions to the conceptualization and development of the report. We would also like to acknowledge the research assistance of Christopher Anzalone, a doctoral student in Islamic Studies at McGill University.

Although the report was guided by the counsel of our advisers and consultants, the Pew Forum is solely responsible for the content of the report.

– Luis Lugo, Director, Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life

About the Report

This report was produced by the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life. The Pew Forum delivers timely, impartial information on issues at the intersection of religion and public affairs. The Pew Forum is a nonpartisan, nonadvocacy organization and does not take positions on policy debates. Based in Washington, D.C., the Pew Forum is a project of the Pew Research Center, which is funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts.

The report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals:

Primary Researcher
Peter Mandaville, Director, Center for Global Studies, and Professor of Government and Islamic Studies, George Mason University; Visiting Fellow 2009-10, Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life

Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life
Luis Lugo, Director

Alan Cooperman, Associate Director, Research
David Masci, Senior Researcher
Elizabeth Podrebarac, Research Assistant

Sandra Stencel, Associate Director, Editorial
Diana Yoo, Graphic Designer
Tracy Miller, Editor
Hilary Ramp, Assistant Editor

Communications and Web Publishing
Erin O’Connell, Associate Director, Communications
Brian Bailey, Online Project Manager
Mary Schultz, Communications Manager
Liga Plaveniece, Program Coordinator

Pew Research Center
Andrew Kohut, President
Paul Taylor, Executive Vice President
Elizabeth Mueller Gross, Vice President
Scott Keeter, Director of Survey Research
Richard Wike, Associate Director, Pew Global Attitudes Project

For More Information

For a broad overview of Muslim communities in Europe and global Islamic networks, see:

Allievi, Stefano and Jørgen Nielsen, editors. Muslim Networks and Transnational Communities In and Across Europe. Brill, 2003.

Lawrence, Bruce and Miriam Cooke, editors. Muslim Networks from Hajj to Hip Hop. University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Mandaville, Peter. Transnational Muslim Politics: Reimagining the Umma. Routledge, 2001.

Metcalf, Barbara Daly, editor. Making Muslim Space in North America and Europe. University of California Press, 1996.

Nielsen, Jørgen. Muslims in Western Europe, third edition. Edinburgh University Press, 2005.

Various perspectives on the Gülen movement can be found in:

Ebaugh, Helen Rose. The Gülen Movement: A Sociological Analysis of a Civic Movement Rooted in Moderate Islam. Springer, 2009.

Yavuz, M. Hakan and John L. Esposito, editors. Turkish Islam and the Secular State: The Gülen Movement. Syracuse University Press, 2003.

For information on Gülen-inspired schools, see:

Agai, Bekim. “Fethullah Gülen and His Movement’s Islamic Ethic of Education.” Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies, Volume 11, Number 1, pages 27-47, 2002.

For more on the Muslim Brotherhood in Europe, see:

Maréchal, Brigitte, editor. The Muslim Brothers in Europe: Roots and Discourse. Brill, 2008.

Rubin, Barry, editor. The Muslim Brotherhood: The Organization and Policies of a Global Islamist Movement. Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

For more on the Jama’at-i Islami, see:

Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. The Vanguard of the Islamic Revolution: The Jama’at-i Islami of Pakistan. University of California Press, 1994.

For more on the Muslim World League and the World Assembly of Muslim Youth, see:

Schulze, Reinhard. “International Islamic Organizations and the Muslims in Europe.” Migration, Volume 28, 1998.

Schulze, Reinhard. Islamischer Internationalismus im 20. Jahrhundert: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Islamischen Weltliga. Brill, 1990. (In German.)

For more on Islamic radicalism in Europe, see:

Coolsaet, Rik, editor. Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalisation Challenge in Europe. Ashgate, 2008.

Pargeter, Alison. The New Frontiers of Jihad: Radical Islam in Europe. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

Wiktorowicz, Quintan. Radical Islam Rising: Muslim Extremism in the West. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

For more on the activities of Sufi orders in Europe, see:

Geaves, Ron, Markus Dressler and Gritt Klinkhammer, editors. Sufis in Western Society: Global Networking and Locality. Routledge, 2009.

Malik, Jamal and John Hinnells, editors. Sufism in the West. Routledge, 2006.

For more on the Tablighi Jama’at, see:

Masud, Muhammad Khalid, editor.  Travellers in Faith: Studies of the Tablighi Jama’at as a Transnational Movement for Faith Renewal. Brill, 2000.

Sikand, Yoginder. Origins and Development of the Tablighi Jama’at (1920-2000): A Cross-Country Comparative Study. Sangam Books, 2002.

For more information on Islamic religious authorities and scholars, see:

Kramer, Gudrun and Sabine Schmidtke, editors. Speaking for Islam: Religious Authorities in Muslim Societies. Brill, 2006.

Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press, 2007.

Various aspects of Yusuf al-Qaradawi’s life and work are covered in:

Skovgaard-Petersen, Jakob and Bettina Graf, editors. The Global Mufti: The Phenomenon of Yusuf al-Qaradawi. Columbia University Press, 2009.