This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals:

Research team

Carroll Doherty, Director, Political Research
Jocelyn Kiley, Associate Director, Political Research
Andrew Daniller, Research Associate
Bradley Jones, Research Associate
Hannah Hartig, Research Associate
Amina Dunn, Research Assistant
Hannah Gilberstadt, Research Assistant
Ted Van Green, Research Assistant
Vianney Gomez, Research Assistant

Communications and editorial

Nida Asheer, Communications Associate
Calvin Jordan, Communications Associate
David Kent, Copy Editor

Graphic design and web publishing

Alissa Scheller, Information Graphics Designer
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer


Nick Bertoni, Panel Manager
Arnold Lau, Research Analyst

Others at Pew Research Center also gave valuable assistance on this project, including Associate Director Alec Tyson and Research Assistant Justin Nortey.