This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Patrick van Kessel, Senior Data Scientist
Adam Hughes, Computational Social Scientist
Solomon Messing, Former Managing Director, Data Labs

Research team

Dennis Quinn, Data Labs Fellow
Onyi Lam, Computational Social Scientist
Stefan Wojcik, Computational Social Scientist
Brian Broderick, DevOps Engineer
Ari Boyarsky, Data Labs Intern

Editorial and graphic design

Peter Bell, Design Director
Travis Mitchell, Copy Editor
David Kent, Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Rachel Weisel, Communications Manager
Hannah Klein, Communications Associate
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer

In addition, the report benefited from feedback provided by the following Pew Research Center researchers: Claudia Deane, Jocelyn Kiley, Besheer Mohamed, Carrol Doherty, and Brad Jones.