This study draws upon a rich set of existing research on the topics of political polarization and ideological consistency in the American public, from both academics and political journalists. The books and articles listed below (by no means a comprehensive list) address many of the aspects of polarization discussed in this report and may be a good starting point for those looking to dive deeper into the topic.

In addition, The Washington Post’s Monkey Cage blog series about political polarization, which ran earlier this year, is a useful primer on the topic. It includes entries from several of the authors below, as well as many other scholars on the topic. See the bottom of the last piece in the series for links to the full list of entries.

Some Further Reading

Abramowitz, Alan I. 2013. The Polarized Public?: Why American Government Is So Dysfunctional.

Bishop, Bill. 2008. The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart.

Broockman, David. 2014. “Approaches to Studying Representation” Working Paper, University of California, Berkeley.

Fiorina, Morris P., Samuel J. Abrams and Jeremy C. Pope. 2011. Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America. Third edition.

Gilbert, Craig. 2014. “Dividing Lines.” Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.

Hetherington, Marc J. 2009. “Review Article: Putting Polarization in Perspective.” British Journal of Political Science.

Iyengar, Shanto, Gaurav Sood and Yphtach Lelkes. 2012. “Affect, Not Ideology: A Social Identity Perspective on Polarization.” Public Opinion Quarterly.

McCarty, Nolan, Keith T. Poole, and Howard Rosenthal. 2006. Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Pietro S. Nivola and David W. Brady (eds.). 2006. Red and Blue Nation?: Characteristics and Causes of America’s Polarized Politics. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Prior, Markus. 2013. “Media and Political Polarization.” Annual Review of Political Science.