This report was made possible by The Pew Charitable Trusts. Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals:

Research team

Courtney Kennedy, Director, Survey Research
Jesse Lopez,  Associate Panel Manager
Scott Keeter, Senior Survey Advisor
Arnold Lau, Research Analyst
Nick Hatley, Research Analyst
Nick Bertoni, Senior Panel Manager


Andrew Mercer, Senior Research Methodologist
Ashley Amaya, Senior Research Methodologist
Dorene Asare-Marfo, Research Methodologist

Communications and editorial

Rachel Weisel, Senior Communications Manager
Calvin Jordan, Communications Associate
Travis Mitchell, Copy Editor

Graphic design and web publishing

Bill Webster, Information Graphics Designer
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer

Other colleagues at Pew Research Center provided helpful comments on this study, including Carroll Doherty, Jocelyn Kiley, Claudia Deane and Michael Dimock.