This report was made possible by The Pew Charitable Trusts. Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder.

Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. It does not take policy positions. The Center conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, content analysis and other data-driven social science research. It studies U.S. politics and policy; journalism and media; internet, science and technology; religion and public life; Hispanic trends; global attitudes and trends; and U.S. social and demographic trends. All of the Center’s reports are available at

Google’s data experts provided valuable input during the course of the project, from assistance in understanding the structure of the data to consultation on methodological decisions.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals at Pew Research Center.

Primary researchers

Katerina Eva Matsa, Senior Researcher
Galen Stocking, Research Associate
Amy Mitchell, Director, Journalism Research
Sophie Chou, Google Fellow
Andrew Mercer, Senior Research Methodologist

Research team

Courtney Kennedy, Director of Survey Research
Claudia Deane, Vice President of Research
Solomon Messing, Director, Data Labs
Michael Barthel, Research Associate
Kristine Lu, Research Assistant
Allison Becker, Research Assistant
Jessica Mahone, Temporary Research Associate
Natalie Martinez, Content Coder
Tina Tucker, Content Coder
Carolee Lantigua, Content Coder
Joel Ericsen, Temporary Research Assistant
Alex T. William, Intern

Graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
Diana Yoo, Art Director

Communications and web publishing

Rachel Weisel, Communications Manager
Hannah Klein, Communications Associate
Stacy Rosenberg, Digital Project Manager
Shannon Greenwood, Associate Digital Producer
David Kent, Copy Editor

Pew Research Center also received helpful advice for this report from Dr. Seth Stephens-Davidowitz, a former data scientist at Google and currently a contributing op-ed writer at The New York Times.

While the analysis was guided by our consultations with the advisers, Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.