This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Emily A. Vogels, Research Associate
Monica Anderson, Associate Director of Research
Colleen McClain, Research Associate
Brooke Auxier, Former Research Associate
Andrew Perrin, Research Analyst
Meera Ramshankar, Senior Administrative Coordinator

Research team

Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
David Kent, Senior Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Chris Baronavski, Senior Web Developer
Sara Atske, Associate Digital Producer
Haley Nolan, Communications Associate
Kelsey Beveridge, Communications Associate

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of Pew Research Center’s methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Nick Bertoni, Dorene Asare-Marfo, Nick Hatley, Ashley Amaya and Arnold Lau, as well as from feedback by the following Pew Research Center staff: Aaron Smith, Juliana Menasce Horowitz, Jocelyn Kiley, Elisa Shearer, Alec Tyson and John Gramlich. The Center received invaluable advice in developing the questionnaire from André Brock, Associate Professor of Black Digital Studies, Georgia Institute of Technology.