This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Emily A. Vogels, Research Associate
Andrew Perrin, Research Analyst                 
Monica Anderson, Associate Director of Research             

Research team

Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research
Brooke Auxier, Research Associate

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
David Kent, Senior Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Haley Nolan, Communications Associate
Kelsey Beveridge, Communications Associate
Reem Nadeem, Associate Digital Producer

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of Pew Research Center’s methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Nick Bertoni, Dorene Asare-Marfo, Nick Hatley, Ashley Amaya and Arnold Lau, as well as from feedback by the following Pew Research Center staff: Jocelyn Kiley, Hannah Hartig and Bradley Jones.