This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Monica Anderson, Associate Director                     
Emily A. Vogels, Research Associate                        
Erica Turner, Research Intern                                  

Research team

Anna Brown, Research Associate     
Juliana Horowitz, Associate Director
Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research
Kim Parker, Director, Social Trends Research
Deja Thomas, Research Assistant
Aaron Smith, Director, Data Labs
Andrew Perrin, Research Analyst

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
Aleksandra Sandstorm, Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Haley Nolan, Communications Associate
Reem Nadeem, Associate Digital Producer

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of Pew Research Center’s methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Nick Bertoni, Joshua Ferno, Nick Hatley and Arnold Lau, as well as from feedback by the following Pew Research Center staff: Jeffrey Gottfried, Baxter Oliphant, Dennis Quinn and Rachel Weisel. The Center received invaluable advice in developing the questionnaire from Amanda Lenhart, Health and Data Initiative Lead, Data & Society, and Michael J. Rosenfeld, Professor of Sociology, Stanford University.