This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Aaron Smith, Associate Director, Research
Monica Anderson, Research Associate

Research team

Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research
Andrew Perrin, Research Analyst
Kenny Olmstead, Research Associate
Nick Bertoni, Panel Manager
Cary Funk, Director, Science Research

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
Shannon Greenwood, Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Tom Caiazza, Communications Manager
Shannon Greenwood, Associate Digital Producer

Outside advisors

Several outside experts helped guide the research in this report. We received valuable advice from David Autor, Ford Professor of Economics, MIT; Stowe Boyd, founder of Another Voice and editor of Work Futures; Jed Kolko, chief economist at Indeed; and Frank Levy, Rose Professor Emeritus, MIT and research associate, Harvard Medical School. While the design and analysis of the project was guided by our consultations with these advisers, Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the design, interpretation and reporting of the data.