The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of all the Pew Internet & American Life Project and Pew Research Center staff members who generously assisted with editing and feedback throughout the writing of this report. We would also like to extend a special thanks to Barry Wellman and Wenhong Chen who were both instrumental in shaping the survey instrument used for this report.

About the Pew Internet & American Life Project: The Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project is a non-partisan, non-profit “fact tank” that produces reports exploring the impact of the internet on families, communities, work and home, daily life, education, health care, and civic and political life. The Project aims to be an authoritative source on the evolution of the internet through collection of data and analysis of real-world developments as they affect the virtual world.

The Project takes no positions on policy issues related to the internet. It does not endorse technologies, industry sectors, companies, non-profit organizations, or individuals. Support for the project is provided by The Pew Charitable Trusts. The Project’s website:

About Princeton Survey Research Associates International: PSRAI conducted the survey that is covered in this report. It is an independent research company specializing in social and policy work. The firm designs, conducts, and analyzes surveys worldwide. Its expertise also includes qualitative research and content analysis. With offices in Princeton, NJ, and Washington, DC, PSRAI serves the needs of clients around the nation and the world. The firm can be reached at 911 Commons Way, Princeton, NJ 08540, by telephone at 609-924-9204, or by email at