This report was written by Rakesh Kochhar, associate director, research. Jynnah Radford, Gustavo López and Antonio Flores, research assistants, number-checked the report and its graphics. Mark Hugo Lopez, director of Hispanic research, and James Bell, vice president for global strategy, provided editorial guidance. Michael Keegan, information graphics designer, created charts and tables. Shannon Greenwood and Travis Mitchell, digital producers, assisted with formatting and production. David Kent copy edited the report. Find related reports online at