Special to Foreign Policy

In 2014, the German Marshall Fund of the United States, a Washington, D.C.-based think tank, asked Europeans how they wanted to manage their country’s relationship with China. At the time, there was little inclination toward transatlantic cooperation: Just 9 percent of the publics in the 10 European Union nations surveyed wanted to work closely with the United States on China. Roughly four in 10 favored working closely with other members of the EU, and 44 percent expressed a desire to act independently of both Brussels and Washington in dealing with Beijing. (Americans were more supportive of transatlantic cooperation in handling China: 42 percent wanted to work closely with the EU, while 53 percent favored an independent approach.)

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