Pew Research Center received invaluable advice in developing the questionnaire from Crystal Marie Fleming, Associate Professor of Sociology, Stony Brook University; David French, Senior Writer, National Review; Margaret A. Hagerman, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Mississippi State University; and Mosi Adesina Ifatunji, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Kim Parker, Director, Social Trends Research
Juliana Horowitz, Associate Director, Research
Anna Brown, Research Analyst
Kiana Cox, Research Associate
Nikki Graf, Research Associate
Anthony Cilluffo, Research Assistant
Deja Thomas, Research Assistant
Claudia Deane, Vice President, Research
Jessica Pumphrey, Communications Associate
Bridget Johnson, Communications Manager
Leila Barzegar, Communications Associate
Michael Keegan, Information Graphics Designer
David Kent, Copy Editor
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer     

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of the Pew Research Center methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Nick Bertoni, Nick Hatley and Arnold Lau, and from feedback provided by the following Pew Research Center researchers: Monica Anderson, Abby Budiman, Jeff Diamant, Amina Dunn, Antonio Flores, Ana Gonzalez-Barrera, Jocelyn Kiley, Mark Hugo Lopez, Baxter Oliphant, Andrew Perrin, Ariana Rodriguez-Gitler and Neil Ruiz.