This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at: and

Primary researchers

Amy Mitchell, Director, Journalism Research
Katie Simmons, Associate Director, Research
Katerina Eva Matsa, Associate Director, Research
Laura Silver, Senior Researcher
Elisa Shearer, Research Analyst
Courtney Johnson, Research Associate
Kyle Taylor, Research Assistant
Mason Walker, Research Assistant

Research team

Michael Barthel, Research Associate
James Bell, Vice President, Global Strategy
Caldwell Bishop, Research Associate
Hanyu Chwe, Research Assistant
Danielle Cuddington, Research Analyst
Claudia Deane, Vice President, Research
Moira Fagan, Research Assistant
Janell Fetterolf, Research Associate
Sophia Fedeli, Research Assistant
Martha McRoy, Research Methodologist
Patrick Moynihan, Associate Director, International Research Methods
Jacob Poushter, Senior Researcher
Audrey Powers, Administrative Manager
Galen Stocking, Computational Social Scientist
Bruce Stokes, Director, Global Economic Attitudes
Nami Sumida, Research Analyst
Richard Wike, Director, Global Attitudes Research

Editorial and graphic design

Peter Bell, Design Director
Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
Michael Keegan, Information Graphics Designer
Shannon Greenwood, Copy Editor
David Kent, Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Rachel Weisel, Communications Manager
Hannah Klein, Communications Associate
Stefan S. Cornibert, Communications Manager
Rhonda Stewart, Senior Communications Manager
Shannon Greenwood, Associate Digital Producer
Ariana Rodriguez-Gitler, Digital Producer
Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Danielle Alberti, Web Developer

Pew Research Center also received helpful advice and feedback for this report from a panel of expert advisers: Charlie Beckett, professor at the London School of Economics; Gianpietro Mazzoleni, professor at the University of Milan; Adam Thomas, director of the European Journalism Centre; Barbara Thomaß, professor at Ruhr-Universität Bochum; and Claes de Vreese, professor and program group director of political communication and journalism at the Amsterdam School of Communication Research.

While the analysis was guided by our consultations with these advisers, Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.